TERMS OF REFERENCE FOR STUDY ON MIGRATION CONTEXT IN AFRICA AND EFFECTS ON THE CONTINENTAL AND GLOBAL SPACES

Background

The American Friends Service Committee (AFSC) is a Quaker organization that includes people of various faiths who are committed to social justice, peace, and humanitarian service. AFSC promotes nonviolent approaches to conflict resolution. As such, we seek to promote the transformation of cultural and societal norms, values, and behaviors to reject violence, with Simplicity, Peace, Integrity, Community, Equality, and Stewardship as our values. AFSC has just launched Strategic Plan 2020-2030, which will align our work around three strategic, organization-wide programs focused on peace, economic justice, and migration. The strategy is cognizance that the world confronts a number of serious and connected crises. After a substantial decrease in global economic hardship over the past two decades, an estimated half a billion people could be pushed into poverty due to COVID-19. Recovery from this economic crisis will be more difficult as we experience further environmental and health threats that destroy homes, upend livelihoods, and trigger more violence. In addition, the number of people living in the midst of conflict has nearly doubled since 2007. Forcible displacement has reached a staggering scale. Tens of millions of people have been driven from their homes; millions more will be uprooted as climate chaos takes hold. Instead of solidarity with those affected, we see a hardening of borders. In many corners of the globe, democratic institutions are delegitimized through political manipulation, polarization, and corruption. Advancements in human rights are in peril. Young people, women, the working class and those who face oppression on the basis of race, ethnicity, religion, and sexual or gender identities are disproportionately affected. AFSC is guided by the following vision and mission: Vision: A just, peaceful, and sustainable world free of violence, inequality, and oppression. Mission: Guided by the Quaker belief in the divine light of each person, AFSC works with communities and partners worldwide to challenge unjust systems and promote lasting peace.

Background to Migration

There are an estimated one billion migrants in the world today and demographic imbalances, economic inequality, increased globalization, political instability and climatic changes all forecast further episodes of large-scale migration in the coming decades. As an important force of development in both sending and destination regions, migration forms a top-priority issue in the global policy debate. To assess the impact of future migrant flows and to develop appropriate policies to manage them, knowledge of their size, reasons for migration, effects, composition and distribution is crucial. Over centuries the populations in West Africa have developed a “culture of migration” functioning as a strategy to cope with local poverty, drought, or conflict. In fact, migration in Africa is a key resource in development and poverty reduction. Traditionally, West African countries approached migration in a laissez-faire way by maintaining porous borders and, if any, poorly implemented migration policy. However, the idea of managing migration by developing a more fully-fledged policy has gained traction also in West African countries. In East Africa and the Horn, migration has been cross borders, to Middle East, Europe, America and Canada. This has been due to many problems including conflict, political instability among others. In Southern Africa, migration has been across Africa countries and to Europe, America, China, Middle East and Asia. The migrants are mostly economic, but there are others who migrate due to other reasons.

Aim of the Study

The main aim of the study is to provide a deeper understanding of migration trends, the root causes, key players, effects of migration on individuals, receiving and sending countries among others with a specific focus on the niche so as to help AFSC understand the scope of migration and niche on where to focus on in addressing the subject in Africa.

Objectives:

  1. The main objective of the study is bringing out the current migration trends in Africa and relationship with migrations globally.

  2. Map out the trends and root causes of migration in Africa to other countries and their effects.

  3. To give recommendations for AFSC on the niche and areas to concentrate on as a new entrant in migration field in Africa.

  4. To come up with a 10 – 15 pages of the above to present to AFSC for validation.

Expected activities:

The study will involve desk top research and interviews where possible to bring out the following:

  1. Background of migration in Africa.

  2. Map out the global migration trends to understand the trends of migration across countries especially out of Africa to other countries in the world. What is the magnitude and statistics of migrants, gender and age trends of migrants from Africa to other countries?

  3. Root causes of migration from Africa to other countries globally, especially Europe, USA, Asia, Middle East.

  4. Root causes or rural/urban and urban/rural in Africa.

  5. Who are the key players in Migration in Africa (EU, AU, IGAD, SADC, ECOWAs, UNHCR, IOM, Cartels, etc) what roles do they play in migration and what are their linkages with each other? What support do they give migrants? Are there gaps in this and which ones?

  6. What is the nature of policies governing migration (inclusive or oppressive?) – Globally and in Africa. To what extent does global and intra-African migration relate to policies implementation (right of free movement etc).

  7. What are the main migration hot spots, migration routes and issues on cross border migration and what are the main concerns of migrants – militarized borders etc (in age, gender etc).

  8. What is the interest of political and migration actors in and the added value of the regulation of mobility as opposed to non-regulation?

  9. Who are main players in terms of CSOs and INGOs in Migration and what are their roles?

Expected outcomes

  1. A write up of 10-15 pages on migration trends, concerns, key players, root causes, policy concerns and recommendations on areas where AFSC can come in to address migration as a new entrant in Africa.

  2. Power point presentation for validation with AFSC at a date to be confirmed.

Dates of the consultancy

This assignment will take a total of not more than 10 days.

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